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  • Writer's pictureMeg Grimm

Healing Oils of the Bible | Amazing Olive Oil


Olive branches with ripe olives

Essential oils have been rising in popularity for years now. Everyone has heard of them today. But no essential oil education event seems to be attended quite like the Oils of the Bible classes. Curious Christians, sick Christians, desperate Christians, all sorts of Christians want the scoop.


I do not use essential oils now (see why here), but I recall the rush I felt years ago when an essential oil instructor discussed how the sacred anointing oil of the Bible was made from ingredients that would have disinfected the temple articles after bloody sacrifices. Convinced God had chosen the recipe for reasons we were only just beginning to understand, I believed all the more that essential oils and herbs were the keys to health today.


But as much as I wanted to find biblical evidence for this, it was obvious that there was only one oil with a spotlight in Scripture. It was not expensive frankincense like I would have thought, but a regular ol’ kitchen staple.


The most common word for oil in the Old Testament is shemen. It occurs 192 times, and in the majority of those cases refers to olive oil. The New Testament Greek word that corresponds to shemen is elaion. It is used eleven times, and refers exclusively to olive oil. [i]


Over and above modern essential oils, perhaps Christians should be asking what is there to be learned from the Bible about olive oil?

*See end notes at bottom.


Olive Oil


Olive trees grow and mature slowly, and they last for hundreds of years. According to folklore, sixteen olive trees in Bechealeh, Lebanon called The Sisters are said to be 5,000-6,000 years old. Therefore, by way of longevity, a good olive oil supply once meant stability and prosperity for the nation of Israel. Consequently, the lack of it was a sign of God’s judgment, such as when Israel was told, “You will have olive trees throughout your country but you will not use the oil, because the olives will drop off,” (Deuteronomy 28:40) or this portion of the prophet’s prediction in Micah 6:15: “You will press olives but not use the oil.” [ii]


Hebrews always tried to keep olive oil maintained in stock. It was regularly used for trade, income, eating, fuel (for lamps), cleanliness (rubbing hands with oil after a meal [iii]), regular embrocations for skin and hair, aromatic substances, medications, and royal or religious ritual procedures such as anointing the temple articles, priests and kings. [iv]


In Isaiah 29:2, we see King Hezekiah proudly showing off his olive oil supply along with other treasures…


Hezekiah received the envoys gladly and showed them what was in his storehouses--the silver, the gold, the spices, the fine olive oil--his entire armory and everything found among his treasures. There was nothing in his palace or in all his kingdom that Hezekiah did not show them.


Medicinally, in his volume on Biblical and Talmudic medicine (see also my book, Medicine of the Bible), Julius Preuss reveals that oil was included in several remedies:

  1. For Stomatitis: Leaven (or water of leaven), olive oil and salt; and goose fat applied with a goose feather (rubbed on temple). *Interesting note: Rabbi Yochanan was cured of this illness by a Roman woman – perhaps the daughter of Domitian – who kept her remedy secret, but revealed it to him. When he announced it in one of his Sabbath discourses, she hanged herself. (pg. 172)

  2. Throat pain: “If someone suffers from an ailment of the throat, garon, he gargles with oil. (pg. 172) “Mangold broth, according to Rabbi Bar Samuel, is the often-mentioned beverage…which served as a vehicle for using oil in gargling.” (pg. 565)

  3. For dysentery: “Frequently, external measures are recommended such as rubbing the abdomen with a mixture of oil and wine, or apply warm towels on the abdomen.” (Pg. 181)

  4. For headache: “For the treatment of headache, one rubs the head with wine, vinegar or simply oil.” (Pg. 305)

  5. For birth: “Oil was used for every delivery.” (Pg. 398)

  6. For wound care and pain.

Therapeutically, olive oil was the most commonly oil used for oil embrocations of the body (moistening and rubbing with oil/lotion), which were part of the daily routine for Hebrews. Only during mourning did embrocation discontinue, as mentioned when King David mourned his child (II Samuel 12:20) or when Daniel mourned for three weeks - “…I used no lotions at all until the three weeks were over.” (Daniel 10:2-3)


Preuss could find no reasons why embrocation was performed in antiquity, but since it was often accompanied by massages, scholars assumed a therapeutic intent. This explains why travelers had their feet washed and “anointed” or their heads anointed with oil by hosts as a sign of hospitality and honor. “You neglected the courtesy of olive oil to anoint my head,” said Jesus to Simon in Luke 7:46 (NLT), “but she has anointed my feet with rare perfume.”


Moreover, Proverbs 27:9 refers to oil and perfume bringing joy to the heart. “That is, they are amenities,” writes Preuss. (Embrocations, pgs. 370-371)


The oil rub was the most important “manipulation” to follow bathing. People brought oil to the bath houses in a flagon or a Galilean pitcher. There was also oil available for sale in jugs at the establishments. Bottles of oil were “placed on a supporting base, an agaltha, and allowed to become warm on the fireplace.” Alternatively, softened olives could also be purchased and pressed directly onto the body. The oil rub was followed by exercise and the mithgared, “scraping oneself” – scraping off the sweat, oil and skin dirt. (pgs. 537-538)


Oiling the hair was also customary, notably for women. “The Mischnah decrees that, as part of the dowry, a husband must pay his wife ten denars for her kuppa, the perfume basket, kuppa shel besamum,” writes Preuss. (pgs. 372-373)


There were also many types of oil-based ointments, miné sikoth, “which we do not know any longer.” - Preuss


Another note worth mentioning is that the topical application of oil to the skin for the purpose of absorption into the body may be affirmed by the Bible. Psalms 109:18 states, “He wore cursing as his garment; it entered into his body like water, into his bones like oil.” Meanwhile, Julius Preuss writes that the Talmud “explicitly teaches that an embrocation does not enter the body, but the body nevertheless derives a benefit (or enjoyment) therefrom.” (pg. 371) As usual, the Bible may be ahead of the times!


Does olive oil truly have healing properties?


Hippocrates prescribed olive oil for many ailments, as well as did other acclaimed physicians of the ancient world. What about today?

In a study published by Gary Beauchamp in 2005, it was found that extra-virgin olive oil contains the component oleocanthal, which inhibits enzymes in an inflammation pathway.[v] The finding is significant not only because it means that olive oil can act in the same pain-relieving way as aspirin or ibuprofen, but also because many diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including cancer, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and arthritis, might be helped or prevented by the use of olive oil – which could already be evidenced by the Mediterranean diet. Scores of studies have linked the diet (with olive oil at its center) to better health, especially lower risks of coronary heart disease.


Mary M. Flynn, PhD, RD, a Brown University professor and dietitian at the Miriam Hospital in Rhode Island, explains that the phenols in olive oil also selectively kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. [vi]


Furthermore, olive oil has also been shown to benefit diabetes prevention, brain health, bone health, prostate cancer prevention, and more. [vii]

One reason extra-virgin olive oil might confer such special health benefits, especially today, is the lack of heavy processing, which preserves the plant chemicals (phytochemicals), thus also preserving the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (sterols, polyphenols, tocopherols (like vitamin E), and terpenoids). [viii]


Carol Firenze, author of The Passionate Olive: 101 Things to Do with Olive Oil, notes that since olive oil is rich in vitamin E, it helps to reduce the risk of upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold. She recounts how her family used olive oil for every malady from sore throats to ear aches. [ix]


In addition, Firenze also touts the benefits of olive oil for the skin. “Among all the natural lipids, olive oil is the most similar in chemical composition to the body’s own natural skin lubricant, sebum,” she writes. According to her, it is safe, easily absorbed and has a penetrating ability to lock in natural moisture. Olive oil naturally targets the cells of the upper layer of skin and stimulates the synthesis of collagen and elastin, creating firmer, healthier skin. [x]


Perfumes (infused oils)


The word perfume is used interchangeably with aromatic oil products in both the Bible and Preuss’ text. Perfumes were most often olive oil or another plant oil “perfumed” or infused with aromatics (fragrant plants/spices) by one method or another, differing from many modern perfumes today that are alcohol-based.


During my previous days as an essential oil user, I sometimes heard that oils in the Bible were not like our essential oils today. They were “infused oils.” It took effort to confirm the difference between essential oils and the true oils of the Bible, but this article is the fruit of that labor.


So what exactly were the infused oils of the Bible?


“The use of fragrant oil, shemen areb, for embrocation, is mentioned,” writes Preuss. “Olive oil in which rose leaves were macerated, or which was perfumed in another way, was also known.” (pg. 370) Preuss also writes that the anointing of Rabbi Jeremiah may have been “effected with sesame oil perfumed with wild jasmine.” However, fragrant oils were often only used during times of wealth. (pg. 538)


According to Preuss, the following perfumes are listed in the Talmud:

  1. kobeleth or kokeleth

  2. “beads of phyllon” which is malabathrum, which were traded in the form of charm beads. They “were suspended from the neck in a small container made of silver or gold, perhaps like the fragrant cushions on the bosoms…”

  3. Pholyaton, foliatum i.e. unguentum, an anointing oil made of nard and other fragrant leaves. It was “kept in a bottle, tzeluchith, of transparent glass...”

(pg. 372)


In the Bible, the precious oil poured on Jesus by the woman in Bethany is called “morou nardou pistikes.” (pg. 372)


While he was in Bethany, reclining at the table in the home of Simon the Leper, a woman came with an alabaster jar of very expensive perfume, made of pure nard. She broke the jar and poured the perfume on his head. (Mark 14:3 NIV)


The bottles had necks which “occasionally broke off.” The aroma escaped only when opened. “The Greeks called these oil bottles alabastros.” –Preuss (Pg. 372-373)


Holy Anointing Oil


Oil is mentioned in the Bible as more than just a commodity for practical use. More often, there is important symbolism surrounding oil which threads from the beginning to the end of Scripture. Having a grasp of oil symbolism may help Christians separate truth from sales pitches in a world where “Oils of the Bible” and “Herbs of the Bible” are used as hooks. Yes, oil has a special meaning in Scripture, but that does not necessarily mean it should be placed on a divine pedestal. The spiritual implication is what is most valuable.


When we are introduced to the holy anointing oil in Exodus, it is one of the first examples of oil symbolism in Scripture. In the account, oil is used to consecrate items and people for holy service. The following is the recipe as given to Moses:

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much (that is, 250 shekels) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of fragrant calamus, 500 shekels of cassia – all according to the sanctuary shekel – and a hin of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil. (Exodus 30:22-25 NIV)


With this mixture, Moses was to anoint the tent of meeting/tabernacle and the items it contained: the Ark of the Covenant, the table and all its articles, the lamp stand and its accessories, the altar of incense, the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils, and the basin with its stand.


“You shall consecrate them so they will be most holy, and whatever touches them will be holy.” (vs. 29)


Since anyone who came into contact with holiness would be liable to death (“…they must not touch the holy things, lest they die.” Numbers 4:15), Aaron and his sons were to be consecrated also, made holy, so they could serve as priests (vs. 30). Thus, the tabernacle, its furniture and vessels were “most holy” and could only be touched by holy priests, the mediators that stood between common people and the presence and holiness of God. [xi]


For generations to come, Israelites were not to pour the holy anointing oil on any common person or to make any other oil using the same formula. “Whoever makes perfume like it and puts it on anyone other than a priest must be cut off from their people.” (vs. 33) Perhaps for the best, Bible interpreters are not agreed concerning the proper identity of all herbs of the Bible.

In addition to priests, some Hebrew kings were also anointed with the oil as an act of consecrating them to their office, including King Solomon (I Kings 1:39), and not in small quantity it seems: “It is like precious oil poured on the head, running down on the beard, running down on Aaron's beard, down on the collar of his robe.” (Psalm 133:2)


Regarding the method of its creation, according to John Wesley (1703-1791), founder of Methodism, the spices were to be infused in the olive oil, which was to be about five or six quarts, and strained out, leaving a pleasant smell in the oil. [xii]


Holy Incense


The holy anointing oil was not the only aromatic recipe given to Moses. Further instructions followed for the holy incense.

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Take fragrant spices – gum resin, onycha and galbanum – and pure frankincense, all in equal amounts, and make a fragrant blend of incense, the work of a perfumer. It is to be salted and pure and sacred. Grind some of it to powder and place it in front of the ark of the covenant law in the tent of meeting, where I will meet with you. It shall be most holy to you. (Exodus 30:34-36 NIV)

The spices in the holy incense were not as rare and rich as those of the anointing oil, and they were to be beaten very small, “thus it pleased the Lord to bruise the Redeemer, when he offered himself for a sacrifice of a sweet smelling savour,” writes John Wesley in his notes on the Bible. (*Note: Everything in the temple pointed to Jesus symbolically.) Here we have raw spices crushed into a powder. Again, these were also not essential oil products.


The Israelites were warned a second time, “Whoever makes incense like it to enjoy its fragrance must be cut off from their people.” (vs. 38) According to Wesley, God was preserving in the people’s minds a reverence for his own institutions and teaching them not to profane anything whereby God makes Himself known. [xv]


Oil and the Holy Spirit


If the Lord used oil for a physical symbol in the Old Testament, what are the spiritual truths that carry over to the New Testament?


Right away, we see the Messiah at His baptism being anointed by the Holy Spirit to begin His ministry. “…At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him.” (Matthew 3:16 NIV) As oil had once consecrated the priests and holy things for service to the Lord, so the Holy Spirit was an anointing given to Jesus (who would be our High Priest) to perform his purpose on earth. Oil is a widely understood symbol of the Holy Spirit.


Then, unrolling the scroll of the prophet Isaiah in the temple, Jesus read a prophesy about Himself to those who had gathered there (also declaring Himself to be the Messiah):

“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, for he has anointed me to bring Good News to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim that captives will be released, that the blind will see, that the oppressed will be set free, and that the time of the Lord’s favor has come.” (Luke 4:18-19 NLT)


In the temple of the Old Testament, oil also served the purpose of keeping the lamps lit in the holy place. The light was not to go out (Exodus 27:21) because it represented the Word of God, which shines in the dark and is a lamp unto our feet, a light unto our path (Psalm 119:105).

According to A.R. Fausset’s Bible dictionary, the “beaten oil” for the sanctuary lamps was made from olives bruised in a mortar (Exodus 27:20), symbolizing that the Messiah would also be bruised prior to the pouring out of the Holy Spirit on the rest of us, and so He was. [xvi]


“… it is for your good that I am going away,” Jesus told His disciples before His death. “Unless I go away, the Advocate (Holy Spirit) will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you.” (John 16:7)

Beginning with the church in Acts and continuing today, Christians are now also anointed with the Holy Spirit upon repentance and confession of faith. In other words, we are made “holy” and able to be in the presence of our Most Holy God (both now and in heaven one day).

Likened to the oil used to keep the lamps burning in the temple, Christians are not meant to walk in darkness, but to have the light of life. (John 8:12) Moreover, the spiritual gifts (I Cor. 12:1-11) which the Holy Spirit imparts to Christians are typified by the sweet ingredients of the holy anointing oil of old. [xvii]

William Garrett Lewis (1872) writes that oil not only signifies consecration, but “Christian illumination…gladness, and graces, are all of them the anointing of the Spirit.” [xviii] The Holy Spirit, or Spirit of Truth, is said in Scripture to be our Comforter, Counselor, Advocate, Guide, Intercessor and Teacher. He is the Author of Scripture, Convicter of Sin, and a Christian’s Seal – a down payment on our heavenly inheritance, which Christ secured at the cross.

Following His death and resurrection, at the time of Christ’s ascension into heaven, when He was declared to be Lord and Christ, the anointed one; here Jesus received the fullness of the Spirit without measure, which He would give to us without measure. John Gills writes that Hebrews 1:9 refers to this moment when it reads, “You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.” (or, oil of gladness)

This particular passage alludes to the use of oil at feasts and weddings for the refreshment of the guests. Thus, it reflects the spiritual effects of joy and gladness on Christ and on His people. With the oil of joy (or, the Holy Spirit), Jesus was now anointed Mediator, to be prophet, priest and King for eternity. And we, who receive the anointing of the Holy Spirit at our salvation, are also kings, priests and prophets, and will be Jesus’ companions for eternity. That’s something to be joyful about! [xix]


Anointing the Sick with Oil


Saint James instructs those who are sick to “call the elders of the church to pray over them and anoint them with oil in the name of the Lord.” (James 5:14)

Does this mean that the act of anointing with oil by church elders will supernaturally heal the sick?

John Wesley at least believed that James referred to a particular gift of healing (from the Holy Spirit) which many possessed in those days, and that the gift remained in the church for many years. “Indeed, it seems to have been designed to remain always,” he writes, “…till it was lost through unbelief.” [xx]


Acts 10:38 does recount “how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power, and how he went around doing good and healing all who were under the power of the devil, because God was with him.”

When Jesus’ disciples received the Holy Spirit, they too, healed the sick.

Therefore, James may be suggesting that our church elders today are still endowed with a supernatural gift of healing through the power of the Holy Spirit. But since all other Christians have received the Holy Spirit, what about them?

We know that many faithful saints have prayed for the sick to be made well only to not witness a miraculous healing. Of course, many have! Since we know that a biblical principle will work all the time, not just some of it, how do we interpret the instructions of Saint James? Rather than a rite, could the anointing of oil have been a remedy?

Actually, commentaries and Bible dictionaries abound that turn our thoughts away from the miraculous and onto the medicinal.

The custom of “anointing” or rubbing the sick with oil prevailed in the East, not just in Hebrew culture. [xxi] Oil, especially olive oil for the Hebrews, was believed to have medicinal properties. Theologians seem to agree that even if there was also a spiritual implication in the passage, the anointing mentioned was meant to be curative itself.


That poses the question, then, why did the elders themselves need to administer the treatment?

Furthermore, Saint James goes on to instruct in the next verse, “And the prayer offered in faith will make the sick person well; the Lord will raise them up. If they have sinned, they will be forgiven.” (James 5:15)

Another question might then be - if the anointing is just medicine, and it is the prayer of faith that truly restores health, why include the oil treatment at all?

Simply put, since oil is symbolic of God’s grace to us, it was an appropriate sign for miraculous healing, and healing comes from the Lord. These elders used ordinary medicine as well as prayer with the emphasis placed on the worth of the prayer of faith.

Furthermore, it had been customary that the prophets of the Old Testament were called to help the sick by praying on their behalf and also, as noted in previous parts of this writing, to aid with whatever medical skills they possessed. Here we see the elders of the church in the New Testament continuing in this role. In addition, since a sick person may be in need of repentance, the elders were also an outlet to confess their sins and to pray with the person in need (James 5:16).

Therefore, it is the forgiveness of sins, faith and prayer which are the means of restoring lost health, but medicinal means is also employed and laid at the feet of Jesus, at His disposal, that He would do with it as He pleases. The practice we have today is the same as yesterday – both prayer and medicine/doctors are employed, but the latter merely put our bodies into a position to be healed. We must look to God alone for the healing.


The Leaves of the Tree are for the Healing of the Nations

Another most often quoted Scripture verse among natural health proponents, namely essential oil users, is the second sentence of Revelation 22:2.

Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb down the middle of the great city. On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. (Revelation 22:1-2 NIV)

The angel was giving John a prophetic tour of the paradise that will be, of Eden restored. In the Genesis paradise, only Adam and Eve beheld the beauty and tasted the pleasures. In this second paradise, whole cities and nations will take delight.

Therefore, the most obvious problem with essential oil advocates using this verse for their sales pitch to Christians is that whatever tree this is referring to, it is not a tree in existence on the earth now. Being a student of the Bible, I always felt uncomfortable when the words were rattled off without an explanation. The leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. Often instructors would even insert “trees” rather than “tree.”


But what does the passage mean? Particularly, why is there a tree “for the healing of the nations” in heaven? Jesus taught that all who exist in the eternal state with their glorified bodies cannot die. Why would they ever need healed?

Some commentaries assert a symbolic meaning. However, there are a few reasons why the tree could be taken as literal. First, there was a literal tree of life in the historic Garden of Eden. Second, if the city, walls, gates, street, river and light from John’s revelation are to be taken literally, then the tree should be literal, too. However, having a literal tree does not dismiss symbolic significance.


In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve were in a state of sinless perfection. We are to understand that they would not die. When they disobeyed God, their access to the tree of life was removed, so they would not “eat, and live forever.” (Genesis 3:22)

Therefore, the tree of life had served as a source from which sinless men would have continued to obtain life. Adam and Eve were not sick. They would not have needed healed. But as created beings, they would have always been dependent upon God. The tree of life was the channel by which God chose to dispense eternal life. It represented humanity’s dependence by their continual need for its life-giving fruit. When sin entered the world, independence from God's provision resulted. Access to the tree was removed. Man would die.

In the eternal state, we, too, will always remain dependent upon our Creator. He will forever be the source of our eternal life, a reality which God may manifest using the heavenly tree in Revelation 22. (See also Revelation 2:7, 22:14, 22:19)


But why the word “healing?”


The Greek word used here can also denote “serving, service, care.” It does not have to be connected with illness or the need for healing. The word only came to be applied to “curing” as in “therapy” in the sense of “caring for” or “serving” the sick. Therefore, it could be said that the leaves of the tree provide a service to the inhabitants in the eternal state. Perhaps the service is even more than eternal life. The ingredients of the foliage might be available for numerous uses. We are not in a position to know.

Thus, even in heaven, where all things are perfect, and a tree has the power to dispense life itself, our lives, our healing, will still depend upon God alone – not truly the tree. Not truly its leaves.

Certainly the same is true for us on the earth today.


***


Find out why the essential oils of today are not yesterday's essential oils here.


Explore the real herbs of the Bible and grow your own using my book The Christian Herb Gardener's Handbook.


 

Meg Grimm writes biblical studies and research articles that help set women free from impractical expectations of the world. Her goal is to unveil true beauty and provide sensible body care principles from a godly perspective. See her books here.


 

[i] Elwell, Walter A. "Entry for 'Oil'". "Evangelical Dictionary of Theology". .1997. (Article Contributed by Richard E. Averbeck, professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages and director of the PhD program at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois.) Visit: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/oil/

[ii] Elwell, Walter A. "Entry for 'Oil'". "Evangelical Dictionary of Theology". .1997. (Article Contributed by Richard E. Averbeck, professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages and director of the PhD program at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois.) Visit: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/oil/

[iii] Preuss, Julius. Biblical and Talmudic Medicine. London: Jason Aronson Inc. 1993. Print. (pg. 525)

[iv] Elwell, Walter A. "Entry for 'Oil'". "Evangelical Dictionary of Theology". .1997. (Article Contributed by Richard E. Averbeck, professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages and director of the PhD program at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois.) Visit: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/oil/

[v] Beauchamp, Gary. “Ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil” Nature, Sept. 1, 2005; vol. 437: pp 45-46. Print. News release, Monell Chemical Senses Center.

Visit: https://www.nature.com/articles/437045a

[vi] Radinovsky, Lisa. (2018, Feb 20). Superfood: Why Greek Olive Oil is a Food and Medicine in One. Retrieved from: http://www.greece-is.com/liquid-gold-and-a-great-healer/

[vii] Pendick, Daniel. (2018, August 27). Olive Oil Benefits. Retrieved from: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/nutrition/olive-oil-benefits/

[viii] Pendick, Daniel. (2018, August 27). Olive Oil Benefits. Retrieved from: https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/nutrition/olive-oil-benefits/

[ix] Firenze, Carol. “Treat Your Winter Cold…With Olive Oil.” The Olive Oil Source. 2012, March 1. Retrieved from: https://www.oliveoilsource.com/article/treat-your-winter-cold-%E2%80%A6-olive-oil

[x] Firenze, Carol. “The Beauty of Olive Oil.” The Olive Oil Source. 2010, April 15. Retrieved from: https://www.oliveoilsource.com/article/beauty-olive-oil

[xi] Elwell, Walter A. "Entry for 'Oil'". "Evangelical Dictionary of Theology". .1997. (Article Contributed by Richard E. Averbeck, professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages and director of the PhD program at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois.) Visit: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/oil/

[xii] Wesley, John. Wesley’s Notes on the Bible – the Old Testament: Genesis – Ruth. (Commentary on Exodus 30:23, pg. 128) Visit: http://bible.christiansunite.com/wes.cgi?b=Ex&c=30

[xv] Wesley, John. Wesley’s Notes on the Bible – the Old Testament: Genesis – Ruth. (Commentary on Exodus 30:23, pg. 128) Visit: http://bible.christiansunite.com/wes.cgi?b=Ex&c=30

[xvi] Fausset, Andrew Robert M.A., D.D., "Definition for 'Oil' Fausset's Bible Dictionary". bible-history.com - Fausset's; 1878.

[xvii] Wesley, John. Wesley’s Notes on the Bible – the Old Testament: Genesis – Ruth. (Commentary on Exodus 30:23, pg. 128) Visit: http://bible.christiansunite.com/wes.cgi?b=Ex&c=30

[xviii] The Treasury of David. (explanatory note on Psalm 92:10) Retrieved from: https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/treasury-of-david/psalms-92-10.html

[xix] Gills, John. “Exposition on the Bible” (Hebrews 1:9 Commentary) Web: https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-the-bible/hebrews-1-9.html

[xx] Wesley, John. "Commentary on James 5:14". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/james-5.html. 1765.

[xxi] Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on James 5:14". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/james-5.html. 1870.


References for the section, "The Leaves of the Trees are for the Healing of the Nations":

Henry, Matthew. “Revelation 22” Commentary on the Whole Bible. Retrieved from: https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/revelation/22.html

“Revelation 22:2” A Testimony of Jesus Christ. Retrieved from: https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/revelation/revelation-22/revelation-22-2.html



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